Architecture of India

Home/ Architecture of India
Course TypeCourse CodeNo. Of Credits
Foundation CoreHRM2AM102/HRM2CP1024

Semester and Year Offered: Semester 1, AY 2021-22

Course Coordinator and Team: Dr AnandBurdhan

Email of course coordinator: aburdhan[at]aud[dot]ac[dot]in

Pre-requisites: None


The course envisages philosophic, theoretical and metaphysical aspects of Indian architecture. It elucidates fundamentals of Indian architecture, its genesis and growth. It offers prolific information on temple architecture, stupas and rock-cut caves. Apart from it, this syllabus offers comprehensive knowledge on medieval and colonial architecture.

Course Outcomes:

After completing the course, the student will be able to learn:

  • architectural forms
  • historic architectonic designs,
  • building techniques and materials, and
  • aesthetics and metaphysical significance of India.

Brief description of modules/ Main modules:

Module I:

Introduction to ideological perspective of temple architecture with focus on the concept of sacred space.

Reading List:

  • Acharya, P.K. 1993. An Encyclopaedia of Hindu Architecture. New Delhi.
  • Acharya, P.K. 1995. A Dictionary of Hindu Architecture. New Delhi.
  • Coomaraswamy, A.K. 1983. Symbolism of Indian Architecture. Jaipur 9.
  • Coomaraswamy, A.K. 1991. Early Indian Architecture. New Delhi.
  • Govind Chandra, R. 1996. Indian Symbolism. New Delhi.
  • Kramarisch, S. 1976. The Hindu Temple (2 Vols.). New Delhi.
  • Macdonald, A.W. 1997. Mandala and Landscape. New Delhi.

Module II: Genesis and growth of Indian architecture from the Harappan period up-to evolution of rock-cut caves in Sunga and Satvahana period.

Reading List:

  • Brown, P. 1997. Indian Architecture (Buddhist and Hindu Periods). Bombay.
  • Fergusson, J. and Burgess, J. 1988. The Cave Temples of India. New Delhi.
  • Fergusson, J. 1910. History of Indian and Eastern Architecture (2 Vols.). London.

Module III: Development of rock-cut architecture in the Gupta period and evolution of temple architecture.

Reading List:

  • Hardy, A. 1995. Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation. New Delhi.
  • Krishnadeva, 1990. Temples of Khajuraho, New Delhi.
  • Krishnadeva, 1990. Temples of India (2 Vols.). New Delhi.

Module IV: Evolution of Nagara, Besara and Dravidian architecture with focus on case studies taken from successive periods of Indian history.

Reading List:

  • Balasubramanya, S.R. 1978. Middle Chola Temples. Faridabad.
  • Cousens, H. 1996. The Chalukyan Architecture. New Delhi.
  • Meister, H.W. &Dhaky, M.A. (eds.) 1991. Encyclopaedia of Indiantemple Architecture. American Institute of Indian Studies.

Module V: Medieval architecture; Sultanate and Mughal period, with detailed study of monuments of Delhi, Agra and emergence of Indo-European style of colonial architecture.

Reading List:

  • Asher, C.B. 1995. Architecture of Mughal India. Cambridge University Press.
  • Brand, M & Lowry, G.D. 1987. FatehpurSikri. Marg Publication.
  • Dallapiccola, A.L. (ed.) 1985. Vijayanagara- City and Empire- New Currents of Research. Stattgart.
  • R. Nath. 1982. History of Mughal Architecture. New Delhi.

Assessment Details with weights:

  • Class Test – 20 %
  • Assignment / on Site Evaluation / Interpretation Brief – 25%
  • Presentation – 15 %
  • End-Semester [Instruction: Please specify the nature of the assessment, whether test, exam, term paper, project etc.] – 40 %

Additional Reference:

  • Chandra, Pramod. 1975. Studies in Indian Temple Architecture, Delhi.
  • Coomaraswamy A.K. 1927. History of Indian and Indonesian Art. London.
  • Deheja, Vidya. 1972. Early Buddhist Rock Temples. New York.
  • Deva, Krishna. 2000. The Temples of North India. New Delhi.
  • George, Michell. 1975. An Architectural Description and Analysis of the Early Western Chalukyan Temples. London.
  • Ghosh, Amalananda (ed.). 1974.Jaina Art and Architecture (vol. 1), New Delhi.
  • Grover, Satish. 2003 (2ndedn.). Buddhist and Hindu Architecture in India. New Delhi.
  • Longhurst, A.H. 1982. Pallava Architecture (3 vols.). New Delhi.
  • Sahai, Surendra. 2006. Indian Architecture: Hindu, Buddhist and Jain. Delhi.
  • Singh, Harihar. 1982. Jaina Temples of Western India. Varanasi.
  • Srinivasan, K.R. 1972. Temples of South India. New Delhi.
  • Stierlin, Henri. 2002. Hindu India: From Khajuraho to the Temple City of Madurai. Taschen.
  • Tadgell, Christopher. 1998. The History of Architecture in India. London.
  • Tomory, Edith. 2006. A History of Fine Arts in India and the West. Chennai.